Enzymes and Antioxidants in Detoxification
By Dan Woodward
Please feel free to email your questions and any information that can be added to the Xtra EM & Xtra (EM) & EM-X F.A.Q at firstname.lastname@example.org
|Chart 1 : Sources of Petrochemicals in Surroundings|
|Food additives||Plastics||Flame retardants|
|Traffic pollution||Building materials||Timber treatments|
|Food packaging||Agrochemical residues||Chlorine|
The chart above lists some sources of low-level but chronic pollution that anyone can make steps to reduce exposure to via supporting plant based alternatives.
1 General Questions
1.1 What is Xtra (EM) & EM-X ?
Xtra (EM) & EM-X is a transparent, golden coloured, virtually tasteless liquid made from the ferment of rice bran, sea vegetables and papaya. These ingredients are fermented with EM-1 (Effective Microorganisms 1), a culture of around 15 food-grade, beneficial microorganisms. After fermentation, micro-filtering with a 0.22 micron filter and pasteurization removes all microorganisms. The end brew contains around 40 kinds of naturally occurring, beneficial minerals and antioxidants.
The plants and microorganisms used to create Xtra (EM) & EM-X are natural, pesticide free and not genetically modified.
1.3 Can Xtra (EM) & EM-X be used as a food suppliment ?
Yes. Food supplimentation has become desirable as several studies of historical food composition tables show an apparent decline in food nutrient content over the past 70 years (Mayer 1997). This decline has been attributed to the neglect of soil fertility by the so-called 'green revolution' - industrial agriculture with its 'NPK mentality' - the unsustainable dependence upon chemicals.
In the process of fermentation with the rice bran, papaya and sea vegetables, many minerals, antioxidants and other bioactive substances are created. These minerals and antioxidants promote wellbeing by protecting the cells of the body from free radical stress, and by fortifying the enzyme detoxification pathways of the body.
1.4 What is the right dose of Xtra (EM) & EM-X ?
5-20 ml per day.
1.5 Can I mix it in with other drinks ?
Yes. Cold beverages are possibly better as some compounds could be destroyed through heat
2 Nutrition and Antioxidants
2.1 What is 'oxidation' ?
The term 'oxidation' comes from the observation that almost all elements react with oxygen to form compounds called oxides. Examples include the rusting of metals, the process involved in photography, and the way living systems produce and utilize energy - all are "electron-transfer" or oxidation-reduction reactions. The form of oxidation with which we are concerned here involves the endogenous (internal) production of 'reactive oxygen species' or ROS. ROS can be created via many pathways in the normal metabolism of aerobic organisms.
Reactive Oxygen Species include free radicals such as superoxide anion, and hydroxyl radicals, and nonradical oxygen species such as ozone, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, reactive lipids and carbohydrates e.g., malondialdehyde, ketoaldehydes and hydroxynonenal (Gracy, R.W. Talent, J. Kong, Y. Conrad, C.1999).
2.2 What are 'free radicals' ?
Free radicals are molecules that 'steal' electrons from surrounding biomolecules causing cascades of corrosion in protein, amino acids, lipid, and DNA, which leads to cell injury and death. Several chronic diseases typically associated with aging have been associated with ROS free radical processes. These include atherosclerosis, stroke, rheumatoid arthritis, neurodegeneration, diabetes, and cancer ; "...oxidative stresses may contribute to half of all human cancers." (K.B. Beckman and B.N. Ames 1997).
The body has enzymes, such as glutathione, Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Lipid Peroxide Oxidase, that are responsible for removal of ROS. The bodies natural antioxidant systems are maintained by vitamins, minerals and nutrients that come into us through the foods we consume (Decker, 1995, Y.Z. Fang, 2002).
2.3 Can Xtra (EM) & EM-X help maintain the antioxidant systems of the body ?
Not only does Xtra (EM) & EM-X contain several compounds that strengthen the bodies antioxidant systems, but several of the compounds in Xtra (EM) & EM-X have direct antioxidant capacities.
“EM X captures free radicals before they can damage cells or DNA and has been shown to scavenge 49% of the free radicals in the blood stream in just over 3 minutes.” - Dr. Khalida Usmani, et al. “EM X Therapy in Breast Cancer.” Journal of Fatima Jinnah Medical College. April-June 2000, Vol.1. No. 1.
3 Constitutents of Xtra (EM) & EM-X
3.1 What antioxidants does Xtra (EM) & EM-X possess ?
Flavonoids - Have been shown to possess antioxidant, antiinflammatory, chemopreventive, and antithrombogenic properties. Eliminates free radicals and to regulate enzymes.
Saponins - Increases production of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Lipid Peroxide Oxidase (LPO), which helps to strengthen the immune system, protect DNA, slow the aging process and suppress tumor formation.
Ubiquinone (Co Enzyme Q10) - Helps maintain cardiac health, increases energy production and stabilizes blood pressure. Ubiquinone strengthens the immune system by increasing macrophage and T cell function.
Lycopene - Is twice as effective as beta-carotene and 100 times more effective than Vitamin E in controlling free radicals. It also has immune enhancing properties.
Vitamin E Tocopherol Complex - Slows the aging process, halts the chain reactions associated with oxidation and prevents the oxidation of lipids. Vitamin E prevents the oxidation of highly unsaturated fatty acids found in cell membranes, decreasing muscle damage during and after exercise.
Gamma-Oryzanol - Gamma-Oryzanol is not a single antioxidant but a mixture of 20 components having numerous antioxidant properties
polyhydroxybutyrate (the antioxidant found in raw butter)
A good intake of these nutrients confers an increased resilience to toxins and free radicals, preventing many diseases (Yun-Zhong Fanga, Sheng Yangb and Guoyao Wu PhD. 2000).
3.2 What other minerals and nutrients are in Xtra (EM) & EM-X ?
Low molecular-weight polysaccharides (these have been documented to have
a wide range of interesting and healthful properties)
Alanine - An important source of energy for muscle tissue, the brain and central nervous system. It strengthens the immune system by producing antibodies and aids in the metabolism of sugars and organic acids.
Glutamine - Makes glutathione, the main antioxidant of the body, which detoxifies and protects all tissues.
Glutamic Acid - The only compound, other than glucose, used by the body to fuel the brain. It aids in the regulation of brain cell activity, improves mental capacity and is essential for cerebral functions.
Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD & NADH) - The active form of Niacin, is a potent antioxidant and the highest ranked coenzyme in the body. NAD and NADH have the ability to activate other enzyme systems and are necessary to convert food into the bio-energy that powers the body
B vitamins including cobalamin (aka vitamin B12),
carotenoids (incl. lycopenes, zeaxanthin and a novel purple carotenoid called rhodobacterioxanthin)
retinols (related to vitamin A)
This list is not exhaustive.
4 Xtra (EM) & EM-X and Healing
Note : The 2nd International EM Medical Conference will be held in Okinawa, Japan in November 2003. Check out http://www.emmedicalnet.com/e.html
4.1 Is Xtra (EM) & EM-X a medicine ?
The opinion of Professor Higa, its founder, was that registering Xtra (EM) & EM-X officially as a medicine would force the price up and make it unattainable for many. It was therefore introduced on the market as a drink. However Xtra (EM) & EM-X does, according to a wealth of reports, exhibit many medicinal effects, and may be particularly useful as a preventitive medicine.
"It is my conviction that Xtra (EM) & EM-X has such huge potential that it even might transform medical science. As a medical doctor and a politician I have seen what Xtra (EM) & EM-X can do for people." Dr. Shigiru Tanaka
4.2 Can Xtra (EM) & EM-X be used to help cure Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Disorder (MCS) ?
The Breakspear Hospital recommends the intake of the antioxidant vitamins and minerals in the treatment of Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Disorder (MCS). The reason being that MCS appears when the enzyme detoxification pathways have been driven beyond their capacity by a high chemical load in the environment. At this point many sensitivities or allergies appear because the means to pass these toxins are compromised. Through increasing intake of antioxidant vitamins and minerals, the enzyme pathways can be improved and sensitivities reduced.
"Xtra (EM) & EM-X has been suggested as a prophylactic beverage in the treatment of cancer, hypertension, diabetes, rheumatism, various allergies and chemical substance hypersensitivity, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and other infectious diseases." (Aruma, Higa, Gilmour, Liang, Dessi, Ke, Deiana 2002).
4.3 Can Xtra (EM) & EM-X improve fertility ?
Xtra (EM) & EM-X is not a drug or magic bullet but can help with wellbeing generally. Male fertility in particular is responsive to proper nutrition. Impaired diet can lower sperm count. Providing a good trace mineral and antioxidant intake lessens the risks associated with poor diets.
4.4 What is the difference between drinking Xtra (EM) & EM-X and EM-Liquid Culture ?
Whilst EM-Liquid Culture is primarily meant for agricultural applications, EM-Liquid Culture has found many other positive applications - in sludge treatment, cleaning of the household, dental care and as a suppliment etc etc. EM-Liquid Culture is free of pathogenic bacteria and harmful substances.Whilst Dr Higa himself does not go around promoting the drinking of EM-Liquid Culture, many people have been drinking EM-Liquid Culture for years because people have empirically noted its 'tonic' effects. Anecdotal reports suggest the living constitution of EM-Liquid Culture is better for rebalancing and regenerating intestinal flora that may have been compromised by candida, irritable bowel syndrome etc, and also for healing of skin eruptions since EM-Liquid Culture may suppress pathogenic microbes responsible for infection. Additionally, the anaerobic bacteria and primeval hydrogen ions in EM-Liquid Culture have a direct antioxidant capacity.
Xtra (EM) & EM-X on the other hand has been developed specifically for human consumption. It is derived from sea vegetables and rice bran. It contains a broad range of essential trace minerals and antioxidants. It primarily is thought to work via its capacity to remove free radicals that are responsible for many chronic diseases.
Xtra (EM) & EM-X Specific :
Monica Deiana, M. Assunta Dessi, Bin Ke, Yun-Fei Liang, Teruo Higa, Peter S. Gilmour, Ling-Sun Jen, Irfan Rahman and Okezie I. Aruoma. 'The antioxidant cocktail effective microorganism EM-X inhibits oxidant-induced interleukin-8 release and the peroxidation of phospholipids in vitro'. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Volume 296, Issue 5, 6 September 2002, Pages 1148-1151
"EM-X : The healing power from antioxidants, Effective Micro-organisms (EM)" by Dr. Shigiru Tanaka. Summary and translation from the Dutch version of the book by Peter and Nina van Moorsel, July 2003
T. Higa and B. Ke Clinical and Basic Medical Research on EM-X vol. 1, EMRO, Okinawa, Japan (2001).
International EM Medical Conference Secretariat. 2001. Clinical and Basic Medical Research on EM-X., Volumes 1 & 2. Okinawa, Japan
Higa, T. and B. Ke. 2000. EM Medical Revolution, Theories and Mechanisms of Antioxidant Action of EM-X. Sunmark Publishing, Japan
Yuan HC. 1999. EM-X as a Free Radical Scavenger. Center for Condensed Matter Science, University of Taiwan.
Ghoneum M., Namatalla G. 1995. “EM-X Enhances Murine Natural Killer
Cells Activity in Vivo.” Journal of Natural Immunity. Nov.
Ke, B., T. Higa, Z. Zhong, and Y. Liang. 2001. “Antiaging Activities of EM-X on the Fruit Fly and the Mouse.” Journal of Snake. Vol. 13 No. 1.
Nutrition/Antioxidants General :
Yun-Zhong Fang, Sheng Yang and Guoya Wu PhD. 2000. Regulation of physiological systems by nutrients : Free radicals, antioxidants, and nutrition. Nutrition. Volume 18, Issue 10, Pages 872-879
K.B. Beckman and B.N. Ames, Oxidative decay of DNA. J. Biol. Chem. 272 (1997), pp. 19633-19636.
Y.Z. Fang , Free radicals and nutrition. In: Y.Z. Fang and R.L. Zheng, Editors, Theory and application of free radical biology, Scientific Press, Beijing (2002), p. 647.
E.A. Decker , The role of phenolics, conjugated linoleic acid, carnosine and pyrrol- quinolinequinone as nonessential dietary antioxidants. Nutr Rev 53 (1995), p. 49.
Balch, J. F. and P. A. Balch. 1993. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. Avery Publishing Group, Inc., Garden City Park, New York
World Institute of Ecology and Cancer. 1999. Proceedings of The 5th International Congress on Ecology and Cancer. Okinawa, Japan
Mayer, A-M. 1997. Historical changes in the mineral content of fruits and vegetables: a cause for concern?. p. 69-77 In W. Lockeretz, (ed). Agriculture Production and Nutrition: Proc. Sept 1997. Tufts University.